Country

Saudi Arabia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Saudi Arabia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Saudi Arabia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Saudi Arabia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
Printing...

 

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constitutes the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia with a total area of approximately 2.25 million km2 of which about 38% are desert lands. The country is arid, and the sand desert renders several regions susceptible to flooding and desertification. Saudi Arabia’s population is approximately 35 million (2020) people and its economy is heavily dependent on oil. The country is the world’s largest petroleum exporter. Saudi Arabia lacks permanent water resources and, therefore, must depend on groundwater and seawater desalination to meet its water demands. Saudi Arabia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change that pose increasing risk to its water security, such as decrease in frequency and amount of precipitation and increase in temperature.