Country

Saudi Arabia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Saudi Arabia.

Country Context

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constitutes the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. The country is arid, and the sand desert renders several regions susceptible to flooding and desertification. Saudi Arabia’s economy is heavily dependent on oil, and with 25% of the world’s oil reserves, the country is the world’s largest petroleum exporter. The oil sector alone contributes up to 80% of the country’s budget revenues and 88% of foreign income is from oil exports. Gross domestic product per capita is highly variable and the economy suffers greatly from the instability in world oil prices. Attempts to diversify the economy are being undertaken in such sectors as telecommunications, power generation and natural gas exploration. The agricultural sector struggles due to the country’s unsuitable environmental conditions, though considerable nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralist farming exists in some regions. Saudi Arabia lacks permanent water resources and, therefore, must depend on groundwater and seawater desalination to meet its water demands.

Saudi Arabia does not have a single nodal ministry for climate change but different ministries (water, electricity, and agriculture) look at climate change issues within their own impact areas. In 2016, Saudi Arabia ratified the Paris Agreement and submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution, which aims to achieve avoidance of up to 130 million tons of CO2eq by 2030 annually through economic diversification and adaptation. 

Country level data at a glance

Climate Data

Historical Trends

The section provides access to historical climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation from 1900 to 2016.

Projected Trends

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

Climate by Sector

This section contains information from multiple climate indicators and indices relevant for key economic sectors. Simple narratives can help you interpret and extract summaries of potential climate change impacts at the sector level.

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Vulnerability

This section allows you to explore the susceptibility of livelihoods and natural systems to impacts from climate variability and change and facilitate the exploration of socioeconomic and development data and its relationships with natural hazards vulnerable areas.

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Impacts

This section allows you to explore the climate information from multiple climate indicators and present them with simple, embedded interpretation for an informative, high-level summary of the potential for future climate change impacts on key socioeconomic sectors.

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Adaptation

This section helps you grasp key national adaptation policies and reports, explore options for key sectors, and understand current adaptation gaps and needs for enhanced climate smart planning.

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