Country

Singapore

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Singapore.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Singapore's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Singapore's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Singapore is a small island state in Southeast Asia and consists of one main island and more than 60 small ones. It is located between latitudes 1°09’ and 1°29’N and longitudes 103°36’ and 104°25’E. It is separated from Peninsular Malaysia by the Straits of Johor and the Indonesian islands by the Straits of Singapore. Singapore’s total land area is 716 km2. Much of the island is flat and relatively low-lying. In 2013, Singapore’s total population, including foreigners working in Singapore, was estimated to be 5.4 million. Singapore is an export-oriented economy that is highly dependent on international trade. In 2013, Singapore’s external trade amounted to S$980 billion, about 2.6 times the GDP of Singapore (S$370 billion). As a small, low-lying city-state, Singapore is vulnerable to the consequences of climate change, such as rising sea levels, intense rainfall, dry spells and other extreme weather events. As such, adapting to the effects of climate change is a national priority. Singapore submitted its Third National Communication in 2014. Key sectors for adaptation measures highlighted in its Nationally Determined Contribution in 2016 include food security, public health, infrastructure resilience, flood risks, water security, coastal line and biodiversity.