Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Finland.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Finland's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Finland's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Finland is situated at a latitude between 60 and 70°N, with a quarter of the country extending north of the Arctic Circle. With a total area of 338,400 km2, it is Europe’s seventh largest country. Finland has an open economy with prominent service and manufacturing sectors, which include electrical and electronics, forest and metal and engineering industries. Foreign trade is important, with exports accounting for approximately 40% of GDP. The population of Finland was estimated at 5.5 million in 2015, with 3.8 million or 69.2% living in urban areas. In recent years, Finland’s urban population has grown due to net migration and municipal mergers, as some rural municipalities have been joined to urban municipalities. Nearly all of Finland is situated in the boreal coniferous forest zone, and 72% of the total land area is classified as forest land, while only some 9% is farmed. Finland has more than 34,300 km2 of inland water systems, which represents approximately 10% of its total area. There are some 190,000 lakes and 180,000 islands. The climate of Finland displays features of both maritime and continental climates, depending on the direction of air flow. Risk and vulnerability assessments carried out in national research projects and programmes have estimated the water sector to be the most affected by climate change impacts (Seventh National Communication, 2017). Finland submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.