Country

Finland

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Finland.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Finland's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Finland's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Finland is situated at a latitude between 60 and 70 degrees north, with a quarter of the country extending north of the Arctic Circle. In the west and south, Finland has a long coastline with numerous islands along the Baltic Sea coast. With a total area of 338,400 km2, it is Europe’s seventh largest country. The land boundary with Sweden is 614 km long, with Norway 736 km long and with Russia 1,340 km long. Finland lies between the Scandinavian mountains and northern Russian plains. Its terrain is a varying mosaic of low hills, broad valleys and flat, low-lying plains, with higher fells in the north. The landscape is a mixture of forests, lakes and mires. Much of the country is a gently undulating plateau of mostly ancient bedrock. Nearly all of Finland is situated in the boreal coniferous forest zone, and 72% of the total land area is classified as forest land, while only some 9% of it is farmed. Finland has more than 34,300 km2 of inland water systems, which is about 10% of its total area. There are some 190,000 lakes and 180,000 islands, with almost half of the latter existing along the Baltic Sea coast. The main manufacturing industries include electrical and electronics, forest and metal and engineering industries. Foreign trade is important, with exports accounting for approximately 40% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The cold climate, energy intensive industry structure and long distances have led to a relatively high energy intensity and per capita greenhouse gas emissions.

Finland was one of the first countries in the world to adopt a National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in 2005. The current national adaptation policy framework is described in the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022 adopted in 2014. Its aim is that the Finnish society has the capacity to manage the risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate.