Timor Leste

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Timor Leste.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Timor Leste's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Timor Leste's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Timor-Leste is located at the eastern end of the Lesser Sunda archipelago. Timor-Leste is one of the poorest countries in Asia with an economy that relies mainly on aid funds and oil revenues. Agriculture contributes to the subsistence of an estimated 85% of the country’s population. This sector provides direct employment to approximately 80% of the workforce and it generates an average of 90% of the country’s exports, with coffee being the main commodity. Timor-Leste’s topography consists of a narrow plain around the coast, rugged hills, while the central mountain range dominates the rest of the country. An estimated 44% of the country has steep slopes which promote soil erosion with heavy rainfall. Climate variability is likely to negatively impact agriculture, while projected increase in rainfall intensity may increase the risk of floods and droughts. Climate change is a threat to Timor-Leste’s development, though a range of socioeconomic and institutional factors hinder the country’s ability to respond to current and projected changes in climate.

The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Environment – State Secretary for the Environment is the key coordinating body for climate action and interaction with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Timor-Leste. In its Initial Communication to the UNFCCC, Timor-Leste indicated the need to integrate climate change policy aspects into the National Development Plan, and will do so by potentially establishing an inter-Ministerial decree for increased collaboration between State agencies. Timor-Leste ratified the Paris Agreement on August 16, 2017 and its Nationally Determined Contribution can be found here.