Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Denmark.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Denmark's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Denmark's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Denmark lies at about 55º N and 11º E and consists of the Jutland peninsula and more than 400 islands. Denmark has a population of 5.7 million as of 2020 and a total area of 43,000 km2. More than 61% of the area is used for agricultural purposes, while 13% is forested and 14% is towns, roads and scattered housing, while the rest consists of natural areas, including lakes, watercourses, heath, among others. Denmark has a distinctly coastal climate, with mild, damp winters and cool, unsettled summers. However, the weather in Denmark is greatly affected by the proximity of both the sea and the continent. This means that the weather can change, depending on the prevailing wind direction. Denmark’s coastline has a length of more than 7,300 km. To protect low-lying land against flooding and storm surge, it has been necessary to build dikes or other permanent installations along about 1,800 km of coastline. A rise in the water level due to climate change would obviously affect the protection of the coasts and create a greater risk of flooding and erosion (Seventh National Communication, 2017). Denmark submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.