Country

Ghana

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ghana.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Ghana's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Ghana's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Ghana sits on the Atlantic Ocean and borders Togo, Cote d’Ivoire, and Burkina Faso. Ghana, with a total land area of 239,460km2, lies close to the equator on latitude 11.50N and 4.50S and longitude 3.50W and 1.30E. The total land area consists of 69% agricultural land and 41% forest areas. Irrigated agricultural land constitutes only 0.2% of the total agricultural land. It has a population of over 31 million (2020). Less than 10% of the population live in extreme poverty. Extreme poverty is outstandingly high in the rural Savannah at 46,1% and accounts for more than a quarter of those living in extreme poverty in rural Ghana. Majority of Ghana’s revenues come from exports of merchandise goods, with gold (36.4%) and crude oil (30.6%) contributing the most. Export of cocoa and timber resources also contribute to Ghana’s economy.

Dependence on agriculture adversely impacts livelihoods in Ghana, with increasing severity from the coast to the Northern Savannah. Climate change is likely to bring disruptions to the electricity system, cash crop production, urban migration, livelihoods of smallholder farmers, and the coastline.