Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Romania.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Romania's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Romania's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Romania is one of the largest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The country is over 238,400 km2, sharing borders with Ukraine in the north, Bulgaria in the south, Serbia to the south-west and Hungry to the west. Romania also has a border along the Black Sea stretching 194 km. The country is characterized by the Carpathian Mountains, Transylvania Alps and Danube River. Romania is approximately 35% mountains, 35% hills and plateaus, and 30% plains. It is also characterized by rich underground resources (oil, coal, gas, salt) and favorable agricultural conditions. Romania will experience a range of impacts related to climate change due to the country’s diverse geography including oceanic influences, mountainous regions, elevation ranges and the Black Sea. Romania has a population of 19.2 million (2020) and is a high-income country (2019) driven by its industry, energy, construction, agriculture, tourism, communications, commerce, trade, and public sectors. Romania is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as extreme weather events including drought and flooding. This impacts its agriculture, water resources, forestry, infrastructure, energy, and health sectors.