Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Romania.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Romania's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Romania's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Romania is one of the largest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The country is over 238,400 km2, sharing borders with Ukraine in the north, Bulgaria in the south, Serbia to the south-west and Hungry to the west.  Romania also has a border along the Black Sea stretching 194 km. The country is characterized by the Carpathian Mountains, Transylvania Alps and Danube River. Romania is approximately 35% mountains, 35% hills and plateaus, and 30% plains. It is also characterized by rich underground resources (oil, coal, gas, salt) and favorable agricultural conditions. Romania will experience a range of impacts related to climate change due to the country’s diverse geography including oceanic influences, mountainous regions, elevation ranges and the Black Sea. Romania has a population of 19.5 million (2017).  Its economic growth rate of 6.9% in 2017 was the second highest in the European Union.

Romania is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and has identified agriculture, water resources, forestry, infrastructure, energy and health as the most vulnerable sectors. Romania’s Sixth National Communication to the UNFCCC (2013) identifies effective adaptation and mitigation strategies through the development of green industry, eco-tourism and energy-efficient mechanisms. The country is also making efforts to strengthen education, training and public awareness of climate change as well as public and economic resilience to expected impacts. Romania ratified the Paris Agreement on June 2017, and submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution as an EU Member State.