Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Romania's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Romania's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Romania is one of the largest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The country is over 238,400 km2, sharing borders with Ukraine in the north, Bulgaria in the south, Serbia to the south-west and Hungry to the west. Romania also has a border along the Black Sea stretching 194 km. The country is characterized by the Carpathian Mountains, Transylvania Alps and Danube River. Romania is approximately 35% mountains, 35% hills and plateaus, and 30% plains. It is also characterized by rich underground resources (oil, coal, gas, salt) and favorable agricultural conditions. Romania will experience a range of impacts related to climate change due to the country’s diverse geography including oceanic influences, mountainous regions, elevation ranges and the Black Sea. Romania has a population of 19.2 million (2020) and is a high-income country (2019) driven by its industry, energy, construction, agriculture, tourism, communications, commerce, trade, and public sectors. Romania is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as extreme weather events including drought and flooding. This impacts its agriculture, water resources, forestry, infrastructure, energy, and health sectors.