Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Greece.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Greece's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Greece's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Greece has a total area of 131,957 km2 and occupies the southernmost extension of the Balkan Peninsula. The mainland accounts for 80% of the land area, with the remaining 20% divided among nearly 3000 islands. In 2016, the tertiary sector accounted for 77.9% of the total gross value added (72.9% in 2000). Growth for 2016 was at -0.2%. In 2016, the total population of Greece was estimated at 10.8 million, with 35% living in the greater Athens area. As a result of economic crisis, unemployment in Greece has risen to historically high levels and a significant part of high skilled employees has migrated to Europe and other continents. Greece has a Mediterranean climate, with mild and wet winters in the southern lowland and island regions and cold winters with strong snowfalls in the mountainous areas in the central and northern regions and hot, dry summers. Greece has a very long coastline of 16,300 km, of which around 1,000 km are areas highly vulnerable to climate change. As the effects of climate change are increasingly being felt, Greece has endorsed a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (NAS) and started developing Regional Adaptation Action Plans (RAAPs). The NAS and RAAPs built on multi-sectoral climate change impact and vulnerability assessments (Seventh National Communication, 2017). Greece submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.