Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Mudflows in the counter zones are formed after heavy rainfall and bring tangible damage (including human loss) even under the present day climatic conditions. Based on the projected increase in torrential precipitation, the frequency of mudflow events might increase.
  • Flooding has caused widespread displacement. Unusually warm days and heavy rains in February 2008 resulted in the inundation of 48 settlements in southern Kazakhstan, forcing 13,000 people from their homes.
  • Glacial and rainfall mudflows present a significant danger for populated areas situated near glaciers.
  • An increase in mudflows from heavy rain and glacial melting present a danger to residents of rural and urban areas particularly in the foothills located in the 10 km zone of Ili Valley.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.


  • Climate change is expected to result in more rainfall and surface water throughout the year in the north and very dry summers in the south. Vulnerability assessments showed that wheat yield would suffer due to expected climate change. The wheat yield during spring is forecasted to decrease by 27% under possible climate change, although, between the years 2010, and 2030, wheat yield may slightly increase.
  • Kazakhstan depends largely on neighboring countries water resources. Kazakhstan’s water–holding capacity for agricultural products (primarily cotton and rice) led to the extremely water intensive character of agricultural production.
  • The predicted warming climate for the country will have pressing implications for the health of the population.