This page presents Uzbekistan's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Uzbekistan has an arid and continental climate characterized by large variations in temperature within days and between seasons. Large parts of the country (79% by area) feature flat topography either in the form of semi-desert steppes or desert zones, including desert areas in the far west that have formed as a result of the drying of the Aral Sea. The remaining south-eastern areas have a continental climate, including the area covering the largest cities of Tashkent and Samarkand, and contain high mountains forming part of the Tien-Shan and Gissar-Alai Ranges.
Summers are long, hot and dry, with an average monthly temperature of 27.2°C in the hottest month (July), and with an average daily maximum of 35°C in many of the major cities. Winters are cold, with average monthly temperatures of -1°C to -3°C between December and February. Western areas of the country experience relatively colder winter temperatures, whereas temperatures are highest in the south, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. There is considerable spatial variation in precipitation levels. Many western areas receive less than 100 millimeters (mm) of precipitation per year, whereas parts of the east and south-east can receive up to 800-900 mm per year.