Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Uganda.

Climate Data Historical

Uganda’s climate is three-quarters tropical with two rainy seasons (bimodal) annually, namely March-June and October-December. Only the northern part has a mainly single rainy season from March to mid-October. The Northeast tends toward semi-arid, especially during the dry season. The rainfall level received ranges from 400 to 2,200 mm per year while temperature ranges between 16 to 31ºC. Key historical climate trends summarized from the country's Second National Communication (2014) include:


  • The temperature trend analysis shows a sustained warming particularly over southern parts of Uganda with the minimum temperature rising faster than the maximum temperature.
  • The minimum temperature increases are most pronounced during the period October to April of the El Nino phase of the ENSO cycle. During this phase positive temperature anomalies of over 1º C can occur while during La Nina negative anomalies of up to -0.4º C can occur.


  • Mean annual rainfall amounts ranges from 400mm within pockets of the eastern Karamoja region to up to 2200mm over Lake Victoria and Mountain Elgon regions.
  • Study indicates that extensive flooding in 1997 was related to the El Nino; and the widespread drought conditions in 1998 were related to the La Nina. During the 1997 El Nino, southeast region received 100-150% more rainfall while during the 1998 La Nina the same region received 25 to 75% below normal rainfall. 

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.


Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.