Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick assessment of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Between 1925 and 1992, Togo endured 60 flood events that caused major damage to infrastructure, as well as significant loss of life. The successive flooding has leeched essential nutrients from topsoils, accelerated erosion, and degraded the quality of the arable land.
  • Drought events occur most frequently in the Kara and Savannah regions, where each year temperatures reach above 40°C. Over the past 60 years, Togo has experienced three major droughts (between 1942-1943, 1976-1977, and 1982-1983) leading to severe famines.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Projected increases in the intensity and frequency of flood events will continue to cause severe economic distress in Togo. Investments in ex-ante measures in the agriculture to avoid food shortages and transportation as well as the infrastructure sector will be necessary to build resilience to floods.
  • Developing a drought risk reduction framework is vital to building coping capacity at the local, regional and nation levels.
  • Such a framework would need to emphasize: drought risk identification, impact assessment, vulnerability and capability analysis, and the development of early warning and communication systems; drought awareness and knowledge management to establish the foundation at the community level for drought risk reduction and resilience; effective drought mitigation and preparedness measures to move from policies to practices with the objective of minimizing the potential negative effects of drought.