Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Romania.


Romania is at risk of hydrometeorological hazards and natural disasters, which primarily affect the agricultural sector and human health, through seasonal flooding and periods of drought. Threats from riverine and urban floods, wildfires, water scarcity and extreme heat are also considered as critical hazards for the country. Romania is increasingly vulnerable to: droughts, high temperatures, heat waves, heavy precipitation, landslides, earthquakes, and floods.  Droughts may become more frequent in some areas due to river runoff decrease as well as from increased demand and consumption due to economic development and population growth. 

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Romania is already experiencing increased aridity through changes in precipitation patterns, reduction in rainfall and increased temperatures. This is putting significant strains on forests, agricultural zones and crop yields, hydropower generation, tourism areas (mountains and coastal zones) and water resource management.
  • Precipitation patterns and variability, land use, wind, glacial and snow melt, and other climatic conditions affect river systems. Catastrophic flooding in Romania has led to built-environment destruction, fatalities and significant economic losses. The most common natural disasters include heavy rainstorms, mudslides and landslides.
  • Flooding, land use change, increased aridity and deforestation are impacting land stability, particularly in Romania’s central and eastern zones. This is resulting in a high degree of vulnerability to and risk from, landslides. This is further compounded by changing temporal changes and rainfall variability.
  • Water resources will be affected by changing temperatures, precipitation regimes, and humidity, which will have long-term implications on the amount and quality of water available.
  • Droughts may become more frequent in some areas due to river runoff decrease as well as from increased demand and consumption due to economic development and population growth. 
  • Climate change threatens to exacerbate hydrometeorological risks including recurring floods and drought. Prolonged droughts are projected to worsen forest fires and shorten growing seasons.
  • While uncertain, rainfall seasonality projections indicate an increase in seasonality and in the Annual Mean Drought Index (or Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) from -0.45 SPEI in 2050 to -1.58 SPEI in 2099, under a RCP 8.5 scenario.
  • Romania is working through the Sendai (2017) and Hyogo (2015) Frameworks to improve disaster preparedness and response by consistently integrating modern technology and policies to increase resilience to natural hazards. 
  • Romania is a member of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe, working to improve its integrated drought management.