Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mongolia.

Climate Data Historical

Mongolia has a strongly continental climate, with four distinctive seasons, high fluctuations of temperature, low precipitation and clear climate differences according to latitude and altitude. Average temperatures range between around -4 and -8°C in and between mountain ranges climbing to around 2°C in the steppe desert region and around 6°C in the southern desert bordering China. Temperature varies dramatically throughout the year. Historically maximum temperatures have peaked at around 24°C in July, while January minimum temperatures drop to around -28°C. Annual precipitation rarely exceeds 400 mm, and is often much lower in the south and central desert and steppe regions. An estimated 85% of precipitation falls between April and September. Small inter-annual variations in precipitation can lead to severe drought events, with some regions not experiencing rainfall at all.


  • Very high rates of historical warming are reported in Mongolia’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC.
  • Between 1940 and 2015 average temperatures rose by an average 2.24°C. As would be expected this rise has been associated with a decline in frost days and an increase in summer days.
  • Maximum temperatures have risen 2.6°C while minimum temperatures have risen only 0.3°C over the same period.


  • A decline in average annual precipitation of 7% over the period 1940-2015 is reported in Mongolia’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC.
  • The country’s central regions have felt this decline in rainfall most strongly. This sits alongside a proportionately large increase in winter snowfall.
  • The number of consecutive wet days and the number of days with heavy precipitation are also believed to have declined over the period 1971-2015. 

This section provides the options to visualize climate variables and indices derived from scientifically vetted CMIP5 projections for different timeframes, statistics, emission scenarios, and climate models.



Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.