Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Mexico lies in one of the world’s most seismological active regions and, therefore, experiences damaging earthquakes.
  • Climate-related hazards in the region include storms and flooding, which mostly occur during heavy rain seasons. Storm events are more commonly associated with hurricanes, bring high winds and cause extensive damage.
  • Mexico’s coastlines are vulnerable to tropical cyclones and hurricanes from both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans from July through October.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Tropical cyclones are poorly captured by GCMs and thus potential changes in intensity and tracks of tropical cyclones in the future are very uncertain. Whilst evidence indicates that tropical cyclones are likely to become, on the whole, more intense under a warmer climate as a result of higher sea-surface temperatures, there is great uncertainty in changes in frequency.
  • This uncertainty in potential changes in tropical cyclone contributes to uncertainties in future wet-season rainfall. Potential increases in summer rainfall associated with tropical cyclone activity, which may not be captured in the GCM projections, may counteract the projected decreases in rainfall in the region.
  • Model simulations show wide disagreements in projected changes in the amplitude of future El Niño events. ENSO influences the monsoon system in Central America and affects the position of the ITCZ, thus contributing to uncertainty in climate projections for this region.
  • Mexico’s coastal lowlands (particularly on the Yucatan Peninsula) may be vulnerable to sea-level rise.
  • Implications for disaster risk management for the forestry sector include:
    • Physical damage to forests from increased intensity of storms.
    • Extreme temperature may adversely affect forest species.
    • Resulting drought conditions would lead to tree mortality and reduction in resilience.
    • Forest decline in the southwestern parts of the country.
    • Increased insect outbreaks, widespread crop failure/loss.
    • Damages to economic infrastructure, and transportation and communication networks.
    • Outbreaks of human and animal diseases.
    • Dislocation of human populations.