Country

Mexico

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mexico.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Mexico's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Mexico has a diverse typography and geography. The northern and central parts of the country are very arid, and semi-arid and occupy 56% of the territory. 37% of the area is sub-humid and is found in mountains and coastal plains of the Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico and the northeastern part of the Yucatan. Humid areas are located in the remaining 7% of the territory. The country’s location between two oceans and complex topography increases the country’s exposure to extreme hydro-meteorological events such as tropical cyclones, frosts, heatwaves and floods.  

Mexico’s climate is characterized by large regional difference as a result of its variable topography and geographic location. The country’s temperature ranges from 15°C to 20°C in the central upland areas to 23°C to 27°C in the coastal lowlands. Seasonal temperature variations are minimal in the south, but range from less than 10°C to 30°C in the summer in the country’s northernmost areas. Mean annual mean temperature for Mexico is 20.6°C, with average monthly temperatures ranging between 15°C (January) and 25°C (June). Mean annual precipitation is 725 mm, with steady rainfall occurring throughout the year, but occurring mostly from June to October.

In the far north, rainfall is less than 50 mm per month throughout the year, while the southern regions and central highlands experience a distinct wet season from June to October, which averages 550 mm per month in the southernmost regions. From July to October, both of the country’s Atlantic and Pacific coasts are vulnerable to hurricanes and Mexico’s weather is strongly influenced by El Niño events. El Niño brings relatively cool, wet weather to Mexico in the winter, followed by hotter and drier conditions in the summer. El Niño years are also likely to see an increase in the number of Pacific hurricanes.  

Temperature

  • Since the 1960s, Mexico has experienced warming temperatures, with mean annual temperatures increasing by 0.21°C per decade. Between 1960 and 2003, the annual number of hot days and hot nights increased by nearly 10% and 6%, respectively.  
  • Overall, Mexico has observed temperatures to have increased nationwide by 0.85°C and winter temperatures by 1.3°C. Mexico’s northern regions have seen the highest increase of 0.25°C to 0.50°C per decade. 

Precipitation

  • Precipitation trends are highly variable for the region, and can experience large changes in rainfall due to El Niño seasons and/ or the presence and severity of hurricanes.
  • Since the 1960s, an increase of 1.2% in the proportion of rainfall occurring in heavy events was observed.
  • Coastal areas of Mexico also experienced an estimated 1.8 to 2.4 mm per year increase in mean sea level, as compared to baseline period of 1955 to 2003.

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.

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