Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mali.

Climate Data Historical

Mali spans four different eco‐climatic zones: Sahara, Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudanian‐Guinean with an average annual precipitation ranging between 100 and 1700 mm. It presents only one rainy season entirely limited to the summer, which lasts up to six months in the South and decreases to two months in the North. These zones have sufficient rainfall, fertile soils, and offer possibilities for agriculture and livestock integration. Rainfall is controlled in large part by oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across the northern and southern African continent, which brings rainfall to southern Mali between June and October. 


  • Mean annual temperature has increased by 0.7°C since 1960, an average rate of 0.15°C per decade. The rate of increase is most rapid in the hot, dry season, April through June. Droughts have become more frequent, especially in the northern areas, which have seen increased migration.
  • The frequency of days considered hot has not changed significantly in Mali, but the frequency of nights considered hot have increased significantly except during December to February.


  • Rainfall in the Sahel is characterized by high variability on both annual and inter-decadal time scales, which make trends since 1960 difficult to categorize.
  • The early 1960's, 1990's, and 2000's were particularly wet years while the 1980's were markedly dry. 

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.


Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.