Country

Georgia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Georgia.

Vulnerability

Georgia is at risk of hydrometeorological hazards and natural disasters. Frequent natural disasters include landslides, floods, flash-flooding, mudflows, droughts, avalanches, heavy winds and storms. These risks are in part due to the country’s complex mountainous relief, but are expected to be exacerbated and heightened through expected climate changes (ThinkHazard). The projected impacts from climate change make Georgia increasingly vulnerable to: heavy precipitation, landslides, earthquakes, and floods. Climate change is also expected to increase risks and severity of natural disasters in Georgia. In recent years, the number of natural disasters has increased nearly three times and, in many cases, have been considered as catastrophic, causing fatalities and leading to significant economic losses (National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy of Georgia 2017).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.

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Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

 
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Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

  • Given the country’s high number and vast networks of rivers, catchments and aquifers as well as its low-lying coastal zone, changes to precipitation can result in high risk flooding scenarios. In Georgia, river flood hazard is classified as high with potential for damaging and life-threatening river floods primarily in western, coastal areas and the country’s low-lying areas in the eastern corner.
  • Georgia is at risk for increased temperatures and increasing incidence of heat waves. This is especially dangerous for rural and poorer areas of the country which may not have access to active cooling mechanisms
  • Georgia is also at very high risk for earthquakes. According to Georgia’s National Environment Agency, more than 70% of Georgia’s territory and approximately 3,000 settlements are located in geological risk zones (National Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Georgia).
  • Drought may also become more frequent in some areas due to decreased river runoff and increased demand and consumption from economic development and population growth.
  • Georgia is guided by its National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy: 2017-2020 to ensure the reduction of natural and man-made disaster risks through coordinated efforts across agencies.
  • Georgia is also working through the Sendai(2017) and Hyogo(2015) Frameworks to improve disaster preparedness and response by prioritizing capacity across agencies and personnel as well as to increase technology transfer to key sectors.