This page presents Turkmenistan's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Turkmenistan’s area falls under the cold semi-arid climate classifications, with the Karakum desert being the dominant feature of its topography. Its continental location means that summers are hot, dry and long, with average temperatures of 27 - 29°C between June and August and maximum temperatures occasionally approaching 50°C in the hottest parts of the country. Northern areas of Turkmenistan experience longer, colder winters and more snow, as well as shorter, relatively milder summer weather. On the other hand, southern regions experience milder winters, with average temperatures well above freezing point, and hottest summers.
While overall annual precipitation levels are low throughout Turkmenistan, there is a consistent seasonal trend. The bulk of the rain each year falls in the four months from January to April, whereas many parts of the country receive little or no rain during the months from June to September. The country’s predominantly flat terrain allows for regular and strong winds which are favorable for the generation of dust storms.