Turkmenistan’s area falls under the cold semi-arid climate classifications, with the Karakum desert being the dominant feature of its topography. Its continental location means that summers are hot, dry and long, with average temperatures of 27 - 29°C between June and August and maximum temperatures occasionally approaching 50°C in the hottest parts of the country. Northern areas of Turkmenistan experience longer, colder winters and more snow, as well as shorter, relatively milder summer weather. On the other hand, southern regions experience milder winters, with average temperatures well above freezing point, and hottest summers.
While overall annual precipitation levels are low throughout Turkmenistan, there is a consistent seasonal trend. The bulk of the rain each year falls in the four months from January to April, whereas many parts of the country receive little or no rain during the months from June to September. The country’s predominantly flat terrain allows for regular and strong winds which are favorable for the generation of dust storms.
- Observations at meteorological stations of Balkanabat, Bayramali, Atamyrat and Birata for 1950 – 2010 show that air temperature in Balkanabat has increased up to 1.45°C, Bayramali – up to 2.05°C, Atamyrat – 2.4°C, Birata – 1.1°C.
- In general, the average air temperature from 1950 to 2010 in Turkmenistan increased by about 0.3°C over 10 years and on average it has increased by almost 2°C.
- Decrease in precipitation in recent years has been observed.