This page presents Timor-Leste's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Timor-Leste’s tropical climate is heavily influenced by West Pacific Monsoon and its mountainous climate. Its wet season takes place between December and May and dry season between June and November, with the southern parts of the country experiencing a longer wet season of seven to nine months. Rainfall is variable across the country, with the northern areas receiving less rainfall than the south. Like many other countries with a tropical climate, there is little seasonal variation in temperature. Timor-Leste’s climate is strongly impacted by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and can vary the inter-annual extent and timing of rainfall by up to 50%. There is relatively little seasonal variability in average monthly temperature, ranging 1.3oC between a minimum of 24.1oC in July and maximum of 25.4oC in November. June, July and August are the coldest months of the year. Average monthly precipitation varies throughout the year, ranging between approximately 12-18 millimeter (mm) during the driest months of August and September and between 222-252 mm in wettest months of December.
- Limited meteorological data is available to sufficiently estimate historical temperature changes, although data availability is likely to improve in future years as more historical data are recovered and digitized from colonial archives.
- Inter-annual variability associated with ENSO is present in observed precipitation records, driving significant variation. However, annual rainfall trends have shown little climate change-driven change since 1952.