Historical Hazards

Over the past 30 years the frequency, intensity of extreme events such as floods and droughts have increased in Rwanda. Eastern Africa has experienced extreme precipitation changes. Over the past 30-60 years, droughts and heavy rainfall have been experienced more frequently. Floods and landslides were increasingly reported in the high altitude western and northern provinces, whereas droughts made severe damages in the eastern province. Rwanda is susceptible to many diseases that are influenced by climatic factors such as malaria, meningitis, and cholera. Malaria affects the largest share of the population and is second in mortality (behind AIDS) responsible for 23.27% of all deaths. It is expected that in the future malaria will infiltrate into highland areas of East Africa (above 2,000 m), and these regions will experience increases in malaria epidemics. 

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.