This page presents North Macedonia's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Despite the relatively small area of the Republic of North Macedonia, the country has a diverse climate, with eight climatic regions. Annual mean temperatures in Republic of North Macedonia range from approximately 8°C in the north-west regions to 15°C in central regions. The coldest month is January, and on average July is the hottest month. Precipitation generally increases from east to west across the country, with annual precipitation ranging from about 400mm in the south-eastern and central regions to over 1,000 mm in the mountain areas in the western and northwestern regions. In the southern regions with a Mediterranean climate, the months of October, November and December have the highest precipitation, while in the central and norther regions, where the climate is more continental, the greatest amounts of rainfall occur in May and June.
- In most recent 20 years (1994 – 2012), the mean annual temperature has been constantly higher than the multi-year average.
- Differences in the mean annual temperature in comparison with the period from 1961 to 1990 range from 0.2°C to 0.5°C. With the exception of 2011, the six most recent years (2007 – 2012) were among the ten warmest years for the period between 1951 and 2012, and a heat wave has been recorded in almost every year since 1987.
- The number of summer days has increased significantly in recent years compared to the number at the beginning of the analyzed period (1961 – 2012); there has been a significant increase in the number of tropical nights in recent years.
- A trend of decrease in rainfall during the same time period (1994 – 2012) was observed. However, due to the fluctuations in levels of precipitation from year to year, it is difficult to establish the exact amount of this decrease in annual precipitation totals.