Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Niger.

Climate Data Historical

As part of the West Africa Sahel region, Niger has a hot climate characterized by very high temperatures year-round; a long, intense dry season from October–May; and a brief, irregular rainy season linked to the West African monsoon. Mean temperatures range 21.9°–36.4°C, with substantially cooler temperatures in the mountainous regions. Mean annual rainfall varies from year to year, but generally is lower in the north (100–200 mm) than in the south (500–600 mm) and is limited to the summer months of June–September. The length of the rainy season ranges from one to two months in the north and four to five months in the south. According to the USAID Climate Risk Profile, key historical climate trends include:


  • Mean annual temperature increased by 0.6°–0.8°C between 1970 and 2010, slightly higher than the global average.
  • An increase in the number of warm days/nights and a decrease in the number of cold days/nights has been observed.


  • Cumulative precipitation has not returned to pre-1960s levels and certain characteristics have changed: rainfall events appear to be less frequent and have a shorter duration with greater intensity. However, Niger has seen a return of wetter conditions.
  • There is a growing climate divide between Eastern (Niger, Chad) and Western Sahel (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania) with less rainfall in the west.
  • From 2000–2009, average rainfall was below average in Niger by 8%.
  • An increase in frequency and severity of extreme rainfall events and flooding has been observed.

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.


Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.