Climate-related hazards in Jordan include droughts, extreme temperature, storms, landslides and flash floods. Other natural hazards include periodic earthquakes and epidemics. While these hazards are a natural occurrence in Jordan, they nevertheless pose serious constraints on development, and their intensity and frequency are likely to increase under a changing climate.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Incidents of flooding are common in Jordan and can be very damaging as many are flash floods. Flooding often follows heavy rainfall events during the winter. Floods in Jordan claim lives, and destroy agricultural land and infrastructure.
  • Rainfall in Jordan varies greatly from one year to another. The dominance of arid conditions and irregular rainfall distribution are the main limiting factors affecting agricultural production. The UN reports that the frequency of drought over 10 years is 2.43 and that the trend for drought is increasing.
  • In winter, heavy rains can cause serious flooding and landslides. Landslides and erosion problems are concentrated on the steep slopes of mountains and wadis in Amman, especially on Mounts Amman, Akhdar, Ashrafiyah, Nuzha, Weibdeh and Hussein and the Amman-Irbid main road.
  • Increased productivity and economic development in rural areas with lack of preventing planning and zoning often leads to a higher concentration of people and valuable estates (infrastructures and production sites) in areas at risk along rivers, valleys and in flood plains.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Rising temperatures could affect agricultural production.
  • Increasing competing demands for water including for drinking water and agricultural production.
  • Increased heavy rainfall could increase threat of flooding.
  • Increased variability in rainfall patterns might increase consecutive drought occurrences.