The eastern and western portions of Indonesia’s most densely populated island, Java, as well as the coastal regions of Sumatra, parts of western and northern Sulawesi, and southeastern Papua islands are all highly vulnerable to multiple climate hazards, including drought, floods, landslides, and sea level rise—but not cyclones. A global risk analysis conducted by the World Bank ranks Indonesia as 12th out of 35 countries facing a relatively high mortality risk from multiple hazards. According to a recent vulnerability mapping exercise conducted for South East Asia, western and eastern parts of the island of Java are considered hotspots for the impacts of multiple hazards. These hazards are either geological or hydro-meteorological in nature and include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, droughts, and forest fires. An estimated 40% of the country’s inhabitants are at risk.
This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.