Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting India.

Climate Data Historical

India’s climate is influenced by the presence of the Himalayas in the northern part of the country and the Thar Desert in the west. The Himalayan Mountains act as a barrier to winds from Central Asia and China, enabling India’s climate to be warmer than other countries at similar latitudes. The northern part of the country is characterized as a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The coastal regions of the country, however, experience warmer temperatures with little variation throughout the year and frequent rainfall.


  • Mean annual temperature has increased around 0.59°C between 1901-2007. The warming trend has accelerated over the period of 1971-2007, with warming strongest in the winter and post-monsoon seasons.
  • The mean winter season temperature has increased by 0.70°C over the past 100 years, while the post monsoon season increased by 0.52°C.
  • Temperature increases are more pronounced in daily minimum temperatures than in daily maximums and are seen across the majority of the Indian territory, with the exception of the northwestern region, where cooling has been observed.


  • Change in monsoon precipitation measured over the period 1871-2009 is weak on the national level, but points towards a slight decrease in precipitation.
  • The frequency of wet days has declined across much of the country. Declines have been most pronounced in central and northern India. These are partly offset by increases in the intensity of extreme precipitation events across the country, and some small increases in precipitation over the Thar desert region.

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.


Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.