Country

Egypt

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Egypt.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Egypt's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Egypt’s climate is dry, hot, and dominated by desert. It has a mild winter season with rain falling along coastal areas, and a hot and dry summer season (May to September). Daytime temperatures vary by season and change with the prevailing winds. In the coastal regions, temperatures range between average winter minimums of 14°C (November to April) and average summer maximums of 30°C (May to October). Temperatures vary widely in the inland desert areas, especially during the summer, where they range from 7°C at night to 43°C during the day. During winter, temperatures in the desert fluctuate less dramatically, but can reach 0°C at night and as high as 18°C during the day. Egypt also experiences hot wind storms, known as “khamsin”, which carry sand and dust and sweep across the northern coast of Africa. These khamsin storms typically occur between March and May and can increase the temperature by 20°C in two hours; and can last for several days.

Egypt is highly arid country and receives very little annual precipitation. The majority of rain falls along the coast, with the highest amounts of rainfall received in the city of Alexandria; approximately 200 mm of precipitation per year. Alexandria has relatively high humidity, however sea breeze modulates moisture. Precipitation decreases southward and Cairo receives a little more than 10 mm of precipitation each year; although it experiences humidity during the summer months. Areas south of Cairo receive only traces of rainfall, yet can suddenly experience extreme precipitation events resulting in flash floods. Sinai receives somewhat more rainfall than other desert areas, and the region is dotted by numerous wells and oases, which support small population centers that were former focal points on trade routes. Water drains toward the Mediterranean Sea from the main plateau and supplies sufficient moisture to permit some agriculture in the coastal area, particularly near Al Arish. The combination of the country’s high evaporation rate and the virtual absence of permanent surface water over large parts of the country result in water as a highly scarce resource. Primary challenges are centered around water resource availability, changing precipitation patterns and increasing population demands.

Temperature

  • Temperatures in Egypt have increased at a rate of 0.1°C per decade on average between 1901-2013.
  • Substantially stronger warming was observed over the past 30 years, with average annual temperatures increasing by 0.53°C per decade.
  • Warming has been most pronounced during the summer than the winter with 0.31°C and 0.07°C per decade increase in average temperatures since 1960, respectively. Additionally, daily minimum temperatures have increased throughout Egypt, with a reduction in cool nights and an increase in warm nights since 1960.

Precipitation

  • Egypt has observed a statistically significant reduction of annual total precipitation amounts over the past 30 years, a reduction by approximately 22%.
  • Decreases in precipitation occurred in the winter and early spring months.
  • The frequency and severity of flash flooding in recent years also was also observed.
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