This page presents Ecuador's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
There is great variety in the Ecuadorian climate, which is largely determined by altitude and terrain. The mountain valleys have a year-round temperate climate and a humid subtropical climate exists in coastal areas and rainforest in lowlands. The country has two primary seasons that are differentiated by the distribution of rainfall: the rainy season and the summer or dry season. The four regions that form the country have very distinct climates. The coast has a tropical climate and a rainy season that extends from the end of December to May; the thermal regime is characterized by a 2°C to 3°C variation between the hottest and coldest months. The inter-Andean valleys have a temperate climate and rainy season from October to May and a dry season from June to September; average monthly temperatures are about 14.5° C in the rainy season and 15° C in the dry season. The Amazon Region in the eastern part of the country experiences rainfall throughout the year; the average temperature is around 21° C during most months of the year. The Island region comprising the Galapagos Islands has a climate similar to that of the Coastal Region. Average temperature is about 25°C to 26°C during the rainy season (December to May) and 21°C to 22°C during the dry season (June to November), mainly owing to the influence of the cold Humboldt current. The climate of the country is strongly marked by the influence of oceanographic factors, of atmospheric circulation and marine currents because they are in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
Climate variability in Ecuador is closely related with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with increased rainfall and floods in the coast and Western Andes, and droughts in the Northern and Eastern areas. In the medium- to long-term, climate change trends in Ecuador are expected to result in major impacts for the country. These include the intensification of extreme climatic events (e.g. ENSO); sea level rise; increased retreat of glaciers; decrease in annual runoff and increased vulnerability of water resources; increased vulnerability to floods and prolonged droughts; increased transmission of dengue and other tropical diseases; the expansion of invasive species populations in the Galapagos and other sensitive ecosystems of continental Ecuador; and the extinction of certain species.