This page presents Djibouti's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list.
Djibouti has an arid tropical climate of semi-desert, except for the mountainous regions of the northern Gulf of Tadjourah. The country is characterized by high temperatures and high evaporation year-round. The country is particularly affected by low and irregular precipitation patterns. The climate is marked by two distinct seasons. The cool season (October-April) has mild temperatures ranging between 22°C and 30°C with relatively high humidity and sea winds. The hot and dry season (May to June and September to October) has high temperatures, which can range between 30°C and 40°C with often violent, hot and dry sand wind (khamsin). The wettest months are April, July, and August, with a monthly average of 30 mm. January, June and December are the driest months, with average rainfall of 10 mm or less. Rainfall is largely regulated by the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the climate is also susceptible to the impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The country also experiences occasional catastrophic floods.