The majority of Croatia experiences a moderately warm and rainy climate. Mean temperature in the lowland area of northern Croatia is 10°C–12°C, the mountain regions experience mean temperatures of 3°C–4°C, with coastalare as experiencing temperatures of 12°C–17°C. Most of the precipitation is recorded on the coastal slopes and peaks of the Dinarides from Gorski Kotar in the northwest to the southern Velebit in the southeast. Croatia is defined by three major geomorphological zones: the Pannonian basin, the mountain system of the Dinarides, and Adriatic basin. The Lowland areas, up to 200 m, represent 53% of area of the country, hills and sub-mountains from 200 up to 500 m represent 26%, and mountain areas above 500 m, equate to 21% of the country. As of 2011, 23% of land area was used by for agriculture and forests covered 39% of land area. Croatia is a climatically complex area and has experienced a large variability in precipitation trends across the country, over the last decades. Particularly, the mountainous region and the coastal zones are mostly affected by drying tendencies in precipitation, especially during the summer season (May to October), while the mainland is subjected to wetter precipitation conditions. The reduction in annual amounts of precipitation in the area north of the Sava River results from decline in spring and autumn precipitation. In the mountains and on the Dalmatian Islands the fall season brings decline in winter and spring precipitation. On the northern Adriatic, the reduction in precipitation amount is evident in all seasons. In the northeastern Mediterranean Region (or Adriatic-Ionian region, which encompasses Croatia), heat wave events have become more frequent, longer lasting, and more severe. The country experiences a largely Mediterranean climate with hot, dry and sunny weather during the summer and relatively mild, yet rainy weather during the winter in the coastal area. In the mainland, a typical continental climate can be experienced with four distinguished seasons; warm summers and cold winters and more precipitation in spring and late autumn/early winter. However, due to climate change, usual climate patterns are changing towards more unpredictable seasons
- January is the coldest month, with the temperature in the Pannonian region ranging from 0 ºC to −2ºC.
- Along the Adriatic coast, winters are milder; January temperatures are 4ºC –6ºC In the north and east of Croatia average July temperatures are 20ºC –22ºC and on the Adriatic coast 23ºC –26ºC.
- Since the 1960s, Croatia has experienced a general warming trend throughout the country, with higher temperatures experienced in the mainland as opposed to areas along the coast. Observed warming has been experienced in terms of both warmer daytime temperatures and warmer nights.
- Maximum temperatures have been observed to experience the most significant change at an increase of 0.3ºC to 0.4ºC per decade.
- The mountain regions experience mean annual temperatures of 3-4°C, with coastal areas at 12-17°C.
- Precipitation levels increase from October to December. The largest rainfall occurs in November.
- Croatia’s central Adriatic and eastern regions of Slavonia and Baranja experience the least amount of rainfall, with coastal zones experiencing the highest amounts of annual average rainfall. Typically, rainfall decreases from the west towards the east.
- Since the 1960s, trends have shown that rainfall is increasing in the eastern lowlands but decreasing across the rest of the country, however future projections are inconclusive.
- Dry spells can be prominent, typically during the autumn months. Summer precipitation trends have decreased most significantly.
- Mountainous regions and the coastal hinterland are mostly affected by drying tendencies, especially during the summer season. The mainland is subjected to wetter conditions.
- The fall in annual precipitation in the area north of the Sava River is due to declines in spring and autumn precipitation. In the mountains and the Dalmatian islands, the reductions results from decline in winter and spring precipitation. Along the northern Adriatic, the reduction in precipitation is evident in all seasons.