Colombia has a rich and diverse climatic variation resulting from its complex topography and its interaction with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and inter-annual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In most of the Pacific lowlands, precipitation exceeds 7600 mm annually making this one of the wettest regions in the world. Rainfall averages decrease as one moves east along the country, to levels as low as 2540 mm. The eastern slope of the Andes experiences high convective rainfall rates (~ 5,000 mm per year) due to its topographic diversity. Northern areas have a single long rainy season, from May through October, with an annual average rainfall of 1070 mm. Extensive areas of the Caribbean interior are permanently flooded during this time due to poor drainage and land degradation.
- Temperature has increased on the order of 1°C in the last 20 years. Increasing trends of daily mean and minimum temperatures are noted for the past 30–40 years.
- Hydro-climatic records from 1960 to 1995 show statistically significant positive trends in average monthly minimum and mean temperature, as well as in relative humidity and pan evaporation throughout the country.
- Positive trends are seen for the occurrence of warm nights and negative trends for the occurrence of cold nights. There is also a positive tendency for both intense rainfall events and for consecutive dry days.
- In recent years, rainy seasons have been occurring earlier for central Columbia than 25 years ago. For the period of 1961-1990, annual precipitation has varied significantly, between -4 and +6 percent and sea level has risen by 1 to 3 mm per year. For the period of 1995–2005, a relative precipitation increase of 5 percent from December to February is noted.
- Some areas of the páramos have seen a net temperature increase of 0.2-0.3°C per decade during the period 1961-1990 and a decrease in monthly rainfall of between 2 to 3 mm per decade.
- The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.