Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Burundi.


Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Droughts repeatedly strike Burundi accounting for 67.8% of the distribution of natural hazards that occur in the country. They have devastating impacts on key economic sectors and can affect a large proportion of the population like the one that struck in 2004 and affected over 2 million Burundians.
  • Torrential rains have caused massive flooding throughout the 20th century for Burundi, especially in the 1960's when the level of Lake Tanganyika increased by 4 meters causing districts in Bujumbura and Gatumba to flood. And in 2002, floods caused by heavy rain forced many people from their homes.
  • Storms have affected thousands of people in the first decade of the 21st century with 15,500 people being affected in 2004 alone. While the rainy season seems to be decreasing in the northeastern regions of Burundi, they have experienced torrential rains, lightning, and thunder during the rainy season, increasing their vulnerability to loss of livestock, food insufficiency, decreased agricultural output, bush fires, and loss of human life.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Improved early warning climate forecasts, erosion control mechanisms, among others will help reduce the risks associated with storms.