This page presents Bulgaria's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Bulgaria is characterized by two climatic regions: a continental climate in the north and a Mediterranean climate in the south. The country’s Mediterranean climate tends to be hot and dry in the summers and cool in winters. The mountains that differentiate the northern and southern regions have a significant impact on the country’s temperature. The continental north tends to have higher variation in temperature and precipitation compared to the coastal regions. Approximately 50% of the territory (5.2 million ha) is land used for agricultural purposes. An estimated 29.5% of the area is equipped for irrigation. Forests cover 34% of the total area of the country.
The mean monthly temperature in the country ranges from -1℃ to 22 °C. Coldest temperatures are experienced in the northern winter months of December and January and warmest temperatures during northern hemisphere summer months of July and August. Over the past century, the region has experienced gradual warming while the intensity and length of heat waves has increased in the Mediterranean region. Monthly mean precipitation ranges from 40-71 mm and varies seasonally; May and June have the highest levels of precipitation while two periods (February and March, and August and September) have the lowest levels of precipitation. Precipitation has varied over the past century, with recent short-term increases in precipitation that have resulted in flooding.