Country

Brazil

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Brazil.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Brazil's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Brazil’s vast territory is home to an extraordinary mosaic of ecosystems, which parallel its climatic and topographic diversity. Brazil experiences equatorial, tropical as well as sub-tropical climates. The Amazon forest drives rainfall conditions across the South American continent, and is a critical factor to the planet’s energy balance. Brazil’s forest formations occupy most of the national territory, and include humid and seasonal forests, which appear most commonly in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Savannas are predominant in the Cerrado, but they also appear in other regions of the country, including the Amazon. Steppe savannah formations appear mainly in the Northeastern Caatinga and in the plateaus and prairies in the far southern areas of Brazil, in the Pampa biome. Campinaranas are found primarily in the Amazon and in the Rio Negro Watershed. Dominated by equatorial and tropical climates, northern and central Brazil receives frequent rainfall and experiences higher temperatures. Meanwhile, southern Brazil is characterized by a humid subtropical climate. Notably, northeast Brazil exhibits a semi-arid climate, receiving less than 700 mm per year of rain. Climate variability across the country is driven by the South American Monsoon System (SAMS), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Typically, early October marks the beginning of monsoon season in tropical Brazil. For the country’s austral summer (December to February), the Amazon Basin receives a significant increase of precipitation. The country experiences a rainfall gradient from the northwest to the south and east. 

Temperature

  • Brazil’s warmest areas are in the north, with high temperatures also occurring northeaster coastline.
  • Temperatures across the Amazon Basin have risen by 0.5℃ since 1980, with greater rates of warming observed during the dry season (August to November). Winter temperatures are rising, while the frequency of cool nights across the country have decreased.
  • The number of warm days and nights increased significantly, particularly during the dry season, with a slight increase in the number of warm days also occurring during winter seasons.
  • Given the country’s high humidity, rising temperatures have also increased values for critical heat indexes, particularly in low-lying areas and the northern and central-west regions, which are the most humid.
  • Extreme low temperatures have also been observed in southern areas of Brazil, with extreme low temperatures continuing to occur over the past half century, but at a less frequent pace.

Precipitation

  • Brazil has highly variable precipitation patterns. Brazil receives the highest average monthly precipitation in January to March and the least amount of average precipitation in July to September.
  • Average annual rainfall decreases from north to south, however this pattern continues to be largely affected by the country’s monsoon regime. Inter-annual climate variability plays a vital role in affecting the seasonal cycle of precipitation.
  • Over the last three decades, the increased frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events have often resulted in intense soil run-off, flash flooding and landslides, due in part to an increase in environmental degradation.
  • During El Niño events, the northern region receives less rainfall than normal in summer, while the southern region receives more rainfall; the opposite occurs during La Niña events.
  • Since 1960, a trend has been observed of an average annual increase in precipitation. Specifically, its tropical wet region, which covers the majority of the Amazon, has experienced a 5% increase in rainfall over the past 30 years.

 

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