This page presents Azerbaijan's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Azerbaijan’s climate is highly varied, with different areas of the country containing examples of nine of the world’s eleven climate zones. This includes semi-arid zones in the center and east of the country (including the capital, Baku), temperate zones in the north, continental zones in the west, and tundra zones, meaning that there are marked variations in average annual temperature and precipitation in different regions. In general, more mountainous parts of Azerbaijan receive higher levels of precipitation and lower average temperatures than the central lowlands and Caspian Sea coast, where the climate is drier and hotter. Azerbaijan experiences hot summers (especially in lowland areas) and moderate winters. The average monthly temperatures vary significantly between different regions and altitudes across Azerbaijan. Average temperatures in Baku and other parts of the east and southeast reach approximately 27ºC during the hottest months of July and August, while temperatures during these months remain between 15ºC and 20ºC in parts the mountainous north and west. Similarly, during the winter (December to February) temperatures in Baku average between 3ºC and 4ºC, whereas in western and northern areas average monthly temperatures fall to between −5ºC and −10ºC. Average rainfall in Azerbaijan follows a bimodal distribution throughout the months of the year, with average levels above 40 millimeters (mm) per month from April to June, and again in October. Precipitation is highest in May and June in the northern and western areas of Azerbaijan, where it can exceed 100 mm per month.