Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Flooding is a recurring natural hazard throughout Angola. In the first part of the 21st century, floods have been particularly devastating to the cities of Ondjiva, Luanda, Benguela, and Namibe where water inundated houses, commercial buildings, and disrupted transportation for extended periods of time. Rural areas are also highly vulnerable to flooding as many residents live on riverbanks, leading to loss of possessions, loss of crops, and increasing the risk of water borne diseases during floods.
  • Soil erosion threatens many parts of Angola, both rural and urban, though it’s more of an urban problem. Extreme rainfall events can trigger massive mudslides in poorly constructed urban areas and along degraded and deforested slopes. Additionally, increases in the intensity of rains with climate change will have serious implications on agriculture, sedimentation rates, infrastructure, and industry.
  • Sea level rise is expected to increase along Angola’s coast putting 50% of the population at risk, as well as affecting coastal erosion rates and sedimentation patterns. 
  • Droughts have large impacts on agricultural production and the population, as evident by the drought in 2000 that affected 25,000 people. Additionally, if droughts intensify they will pose serious threats to food security, people’s main livelihood activity (agriculture), and water resources.
  • Epidemics of vector borne diseases and water-associated diseases in Angola are likely to become worse under climate change. Increasing temperatures are expected to expand the geographic range and prolong the seasonality of the vectors (e.g. malaria carrying mosquitos). This is particularly important for Angola where malaria is the leading cause of death and accounts for 20% of maternal mortality. Additionally, increases in floods intensify the risk of water-associated diseases such as cholera, gastrointestinal diseases, and malaria. In Luanda in 2008, intense rains and floods led to a surge in the number of these diseases.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.