The climate science community sources a suite of global climate models to help decision makers understand the projections of future climate change and related impacts, among the most widely used are the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) models included in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Key projected climate trends are summarized below:
- Annual maximum temperature is likely to increase by 1.5°C to 2.5°C by 2030 and 1.9°C to 3.8°C by 2050.
- Annual minimum temperature is likely to rise from 0.9°C to 1.5°C by 2030 and from 1.2°C to 2.3°C by 2050.
- The number of hot days is projected to increase by about 1.3 days per year between 2020 and 2039.
- The duration of heatwaves is likely to increase by 4 to 9 days by 2030 and by 6 to 18 days by 2050.
- The duration of cold spells is likely to decrease by 1 to 3 days by 2030 and by 2 to 4 days by 2050.
- All models project a likely decrease in overall precipitation by 2050, with most projecting a minimum decrease of around 4% and maximum decrease varying from 7% to as much as 22%.
- The duration of dry spells is likely to increase by 1 to 21 days by 2030 and by 1 to 30 days by 2050.
- The decrease in precipitation is accompanied by an anticipated increase in the frequency and intensity and droughts and flooding.
This section provides the options to visualize climate variables and indices derived from scientifically vetted CMIP5 projections for different timeframes, statistics, emission scenarios, and climate models.