Aridity, high temperatures and significant inter-annual variability of almost all climatic elements are predominant characteristics of Tajikistan’s climate. Annual mean temperatures vary from 17°C in the south to -6°C in the lower Pamirs. Maximum temperatures are observed in July and minimum in January. In the East Pamir, the minimum temperature reaches -63°C, whereas in the south, maximum surface air temperature can exceed 47°C. The annual precipitation in the lowland, hot deserts of northern Tajikistan, and cold mountain deserts of east Pamir averages from 70 to 160 mm, whereas in central Tajikistan precipitation can exceed 1,800 mm per year. Key historical climate trends are summarized below:
- Since 1940, the mean annual temperature increased by 0.3-1.2°C, with an average of 0.1-0.2°C per decade. The minimum mean temperature also increased by 0.5-2.0°C with some exceptions in high mountainous areas, where it dropped by 0.1°C. Smaller temperature increases have been noticed in higher altitudes and larger increases in lower altitudes. Urbanization has caused the near surface area temperature of large cities has increased by 1.2-1.9°C.
- The number of days with temperature equal to 40°C or over has increased in the most flat areas of the country.
- Since 1940, the annual precipitation pattern shows insignificant increase (i.e. 8% for altitudes of up to 2,500 m) and insignificant decrease (i.e. 3% in the mountainous area). The amount of precipitation in the Eastern Pamir reduced by 5 to 10%, and by 44% in Murghab. Precipitation similarly decreased in the southern lowland areas. Precipitation increased by 5 to 10% in Central Tajikistan, by 20% in the southern mountainous area, and by 5 to 30% in the mountains of northern Tajikistan, with the exception of high mountains.
- The total number of precipitation days has decreased in the country, most notably in Iskandarkul, where it has decreased by 48 days.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.