Climate in Somalia is influenced by a number of factors, including the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), monsoonal winds and ocean currents, jet-streams including the Somali Jetstream or Somalia Current, easterly waves, tropical cyclones, and neighboring Indian Ocean and Red Sea conditions. Somalia is generally arid and semi-arid with two seasonal rainfall seasons. Annual mean temperature is close to 30°С throughout the country. Average monthly temperatures reach their maximum during the months of April through June. June to September are the hottest months in the north, while December to March mark the hottest weather for the south. Precipitation is generally low across the country and takes the form of showers or localized torrential rains, subject to high spatial and temporal variability. The average annual rainfall is about 200 mm in most parts of the country. Only the northern coastline receives significantly less rainfall (only up to 50 mm). Rainfall in the south is higher at approximately 400 mm and highest in the southwest with around 600 mm rainfall on an annual average. The Gu rain season starts as early as the second half of March. Precipitation intensifies in April across the country, except for the north-eastern coastline which receives the least amount of rainfall during this season. In June, rainfall starts to reduce in most parts of Somalia. The southern coastline continues to receive little rainfall. Significant rains occur in July through August. The second rainy season (Deyr) is characterized by a shorter duration and less amounts of precipitation in the months of October to the end of November. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences Somalia’s climate variability in several ways, bringing more rainfall and flooding during El Niño and droughts in La Niña years.
- Since the 1960's, a warming trend has been observed in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Despite trends for the Sub-Saharan region as a whole being inconsistent, East Africa has been experiencing precipitation increases in the northern part and decreases in rainfall in southern region.