Saudi Arabia is characterized by a desert climate, with the exception of the southwestern part of the country, which exhibits a semi-arid climate. Summers in the central region are extremely hot and dry, with temperatures exceeding 50°C. The country sees dry and cool winters with freezing nighttime temperatures. Mountainous regions experience several weeks of severe frost and snow, while eastern and western regions experience hot and humid summers. Saudi Arabia's climate is impacted by the Indian Ocean monsoons, the El Nino Southern Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).Key historical climate trends are summarized below:
- According to Saudi Arabia’s First National Communication, general warming was reported all over the country. It varied from a minimum of about 0.15°C of warming since 1950 in Tabuk, Makkah and Al Ahssa, to a maximum of about 0.75°C since 1950 in Khamis Mushait, Wadi Al Dawasser and Yanbu.
- The analysis presented in the National Communication indicated great variability in precipitation changes with high decreases to the north and southwestern parts of the country by up to 50 mm.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.