Sao Tome and Principe

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Sao Tome and Principe.


Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick assessment of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • São Tomé and Príncipe is vulnerable to diseases that are influenced by climatic factors. Floods pose problems for malaria incidence, which could increase and cause epidemics with significant human losses. Additionally, ocular disease typically increases during drought periods and may become epidemic in proportion. Further, poor sanitation and contaminated water supplies can increase the risk of certain diseases (e.g. cholera, typhoid, etc.).
  • Floods frequently affect this island nation and increases in sea levels are expected to exacerbate these extreme events along the coasts of the islands and disturb many towns and communities. Heavy rainfall events and storms also contribute to floods and cause soil erosion, landslides, increase the risk of waterborne diseases, and decrease crop production. 

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Sea level rise presents a serious risk to the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe Construction of sea barriers, relocation of local communities, rehabilitation of beaches, protection of tourist areas, rehabilitation of oceanographic features, and establishment of a climate alert system are proposed adaptation strategies and necessary to decrease the risks associated with rising seas.
  • Decreasing the populations vulnerability to diseases in the future will depend on climate change adaptation options such as training and study visits for health emergencies; communication actions for behavior change; database of epidemic diseases related to climate change; correlation of data on vector borne diseases through spatial analysis systems; and development of strategies and emergency plans for the health sector.
  • Floods frequently affect São Tomé and Príncipe and increases in sea levels are expected to exacerbate extreme events along the coasts. Early warning systems for the health and agricultural sectors, as well as sea barriers, coastal rehabilitation, and soil rehabilitation adaptation strategies will help with disaster risks reduction.