Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Peru.

Climate Data Historical

Peru is a diverse country defined by the Andean mountain range, which runs north-south, dividing the country into three broad climatic regions: the Coast, the Andean Highlands, and the Eastern lowlands and Amazon rainforest. The Coast experiences a semi-arid, subtropical desert climate with average annual rainfall of 150 mm. Along the southern and central coast, temperatures vary from 13˚–26˚C, with colder months in May and October. The north has a more semi-tropical climate and temperatures average 24˚C. In the Andean highlands, climate varies with elevation; traditionally, a rainy season occurs from September– March (although it can start as late as December) and a dry, cold season from May–August. Average temperatures range from 11˚–18˚C, and annual rainfall from 50–1000 mm, with drier conditions along the southwest and wetter conditions along the east. The northern Andes are subject to frosts, while the southern Andes are drought-prone. The Eastern lowlands and Amazon rainforest have a tropical climate, with high temperatures and rainfall throughout the year. Average temperatures range from 22˚C in the eastern Andes to 31˚C in the Amazon, with annual rainfall from 1,000–3,000 mm (Third National Communication to UNFCCC, 2016). According to the USAID Climate Risk Profile, key historical climate trends include:


  • Since the 1960s, Peru’s average temperature have increased 1˚C.
  • Since the 1960s, the number of cold days and nights have decreased; and the number warm days and nights have increased.


  • Since the 1960s, Peru has experienced increased precipitation along the coast and northern mountains, coupled with increased intensity and frequency of rainfall events.
  • Rainfall has decreased in the northern rainforests, and the intensity and frequency of rainfall events in the central highlands have also decreased.
  • Greater recurrence of dry spells and droughts in central and southern highlands and rainforest.
  • Number of intense rainstorms, mudflows and forest fires more than doubled in the past 10 years and floods have increased by 60% since 1970.

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