In Madagascar, two seasons are recognized: a hot, rainy season from November to April and a cooler, dry season from May to October. The east coast has a sub-equatorial climate driven by easterly trade winds, along with the heaviest and most consistent rainfall, with a maximum of 3,700 mm annually. The west coast of the country is generally drier and is subject to significant coastal erosion. The southwest and the extreme south are semi-desert environments, receiving less than 800 mm of rainfall annually. The average annual temperatures vary between 23°C and 27°C along the coast and between 16°C and 19°C in the central mountains.
- There is clear evidence that temperatures have increased by 0.2°C over northern Madagascar and by 0.1°C over southern Madagascar.
- Between 1961 and 2005, 17 of the 21 weather stations recorded statistically significant increases in daily minimum temperatures across all seasons, and several stations indicated increased daily maximum temperature trends.
- The character of rainfall across Madagascar has changed significantly, although no obvious trend in rainfall can be surmised from the available record.
- A reduction in winter and spring rainfall has been detected in most parts of the country.
- In the central and east coastal regions, rainfall was on a steady decline between 1961 and 2005, accompanied by increases in the length of dry spells.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.