Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Flooding in Lebanon is mainly caused by irregularities in rainfall patterns. The country experiences 1 to 2 cases of flooding annually, a number that is likely to rise with climate change.
  • Heavy rains measure up to 100 mm per hour during storm events and have significant impacts on the Lebanese population and economy. Storms damage property and agricultural lands, and often set off landslides that deposit tons of solid waste and other pollution into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • About 10% of the Lebanese population is susceptible to drought. Increased surface runoff coupled with reduced precipitation is likely to increase with rising temperatures, leading to increased drought severity.
  • In the recent past, Lebanon experienced deviation in rainfall patterns, which has been attributed to increasing temperatures. Changes in rainfall patterns are affecting the frequency of intense rainfall events and altering catchments and drainage basins. Increased winter rainfalls lead to destructive flooding.
  • About 16,000 ha (or 1% of the forested area) were burned in the 2007. The frequency of forest fires is expected to grow due to ongoing replacement of forest stands with fire-prone shrubs and the increased intensity and duration of drought periods.
  • Fire-prone areas in Lebanon include woodland/forests in rural and mountain areas; however, plantations and natural woodlands/forests near urban areas are highly susceptible and pose risks to populations given the high rate of urbanization.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.

  • Increased temperature and drier conditions may increase the severity and intensity of fires.
  • Increased temperatures and evapotranspiration coupled with declining, but increasingly erratic rainfall, may lead to more severe drought conditions.
  • Drier conditions are likely to further accelerate the depletion of groundwater supplies that are currently under pressure from extraction for agriculture and are also being polluted by industry.