Country

Latvia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Latvia.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Latvia's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Main drivers of climate conditions in Latvia are Latvia’s location in northwest of the Eurasian continent, distance from Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga and relief of the territory of Latvia. Over the 1981-2010 normal period, the annual average air temperature is from +5.2 till +5.3°C in Alūksne and Vidzeme Uplands to +7.3 till 7.4°C in the coastal territories of the Baltic Sea, clearly illustrating the impact of continentality, proximity to the Baltic Sea and positive relief forms on the climatic conditions and the spread of their manifestations within the territory of Latvia. Air temperature has a seasonal nature – February being the coldest month with average air temperature -3.7°C and July being the warmest with +17.4°C. Annual precipitation amount in Latvia over the 1981-2010 normal period is from 590-670 mm in the Zemgale region to 770-870 mm in western parts of Vidzeme and Kurzeme Uplands. The least amount of precipitation is observed during the spring season, when the activity of the cyclones that were dominant during the autumn and winter seasons has ended, while the convective processes typical for the summer season have not yet begun. The highest amount of precipitation is observed in the summer season. On average, in Latvia there are 17 heavy precipitation and 4 very heavy precipitation days a year and the average annual maximum one-day precipitation amount is 34 mm. The highest recorded daily amount of precipitation is 160 mm. 

Temperature

  • Since the beginning of the 20th century, records of average air temperature in Latvia have a long-term trend of warming. The year 2015 was the warmest year in 93 years, while 2014 and 2016 were the 8th and 11th warmest years respectively.
  • Along with average air temperature, there is an observed increase in extreme values. The most significant increase has been in values of minimum, mean and maximum air temperatures. Therefore, the most notable changes have occurred in winter and spring seasons. 
  • Under the impact of general air temperature increase, the length of growing season and the number of summer days and tropical nights have increased, while the number of frost days and ice days has decreased.

Precipitation

  • Over the last 50 years, an increase in precipitation, especially in winter and spring seasons, is observed. Moreover, precipitation intensity has increased, which in turn has increased both the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events. 
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