Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014). 

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.



Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

Key Vulnerabilities
  • Rainfall in Kuwait tends to be erratic, often characterized by heavy storms that cause flash floods. The country’s flat landscape increases the impact of floods on infrastructure and agriculture.
  • Kuwait’s arid climate is aggravated by low annual rainfall, which leads to an increase in drought occurrences. Climate change may increase the length, severity and frequency of droughts, which will intensify existing water problems, and could severely affect plant cover, possibly leading to an increase in wind erosion and sand encroachment.
  • Winds that cause sand storms in the northern part of the Arabian Gulf are linked with the movement of short waves in atmospheric layers over the eastern part of the Mediterranean.
  • In the desert areas, sandstorms are more frequent during the summer due to hot air over the desert. In recent years, Kuwait has witnessed sandstorms with speeds up to 60 km per hour.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.


  • Increase in river fluctuations is expected to intensify flood occurrence.
  • Decrease in precipitation rates might lead to longer and severe droughts.
  • Increase in water pollution and contamination is likely to intensify epidemics, particularly cholera.
  • Increased drought periods are likely to decrease agricultural production with significant impacts on livestock production.
  • Increase in floods is expected to aggravate damage to infrastructure.
  • Increase in droughts might increase rural-urban migration, increasing pressure on the already strained urban social and economic infrastructure.