Historical Hazards

Haiti’s geographic location in the path of Atlantic hurricanes, combined with the steep topography of its western region from which all major river systems flow to the coast, makes the country particularly vulnerable to hydrometeorological disasters, especially between June and December. Landslides are common along all river valleys where years of deforestation have left the upper reaches of the western basins bare. The major natural hazards that threaten Haiti are cyclones, floods, droughts, and landslides, with floods leading as the greatest threat and contributor to vulnerability. The country’s most populated cities are all nestled in the valleys along the coast. When it rains, the steep, often barren hills that surround them flush rainwater toward the urban areas. Widespread deforestation in the upper reaches of these valleys, coupled with lacking drainage infrastructure, creates an environment conducive to flooding.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.