This page presents Greece's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Greece has a Mediterranean climate, with mild and wet winters in the southern lowland and island regions and cold winters with strong snowfalls in the mountainous areas in the central and northern regions and hot, dry summers. The mean temperature during summer (April to September) is approximately 24°C in Athens and southern Greece, while lower in the north. Generally, temperatures are higher in the southern part of the country. Except for a few thunderstorms, rainfall is rare from June to August, where sunny and dry days are mainly observed. The dry, hot weather is often relieved by a system of seasonal breezes. The mean annual temperature for the period 2001 – 2015, as measured at selected meteorological stations of the country, is higher in most of the stations compared to the mean annual temperature of the period 1991 – 2000 while the mean annual temperature for the period 1991 – 2000 is higher compared to these of the period 1961 – 1990.
- Current climate change has been estimated to account for a temperature increases of about 1°C (ground surface temperature) in the last 500 years and of 0.76°C in the last 100 years.
- Temperatures in the second half of the 20th century were, as estimated, very likely to have been higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years, and likely the highest in the past 1,300 years.
- In the Mediterranean most of the floods are caused by intense rainfall in a short time frame, making flash flooding the most common type of inundation. The temporal distribution of flood events in Greece between 1880 and 2010 presents a significant increase during the last decades.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.