This page presents Germany's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
Germany is part of the temperate, rainy climate zone of the mid-latitudes. The annual mean temperature between Sylt (an island in northern Germany) and the Zugspitze (Germany's highest peak) from 1961 to 1990 was 8.2°C. The sun shines an average of 1,544 hours per year. Prevailing westerly winds carry moist air masses in from the Atlantic throughout the year, bringing up to 789 l/m2 of annual precipitation. The maritime influence generally keeps winters mild and ensures that summers are not too hot.
- Germany's mean temperature rose by 1.4°C between 1881 and 2015.
- The multi-year mean for the 1961-1990 reference period (8.2°C) has risen to 8.9°C during the more recent 30-year period of 1981-2010.
- The most pronounced increases since 1881 have been 1.5°C in the West German lowland bay (Westdeutsche Tieflandsbucht), the low mountain ranges left of the Rhine and the lowlands of the Upper Rhine rift, while the slightest increase (0.9°C) has been in the North-East German lowland.
- The average number of hot days (daily maximum air temperature ≥ 30°C) for Germany as a whole has increased since the 1950s from about three days per year to the current average of nine days per year. The average number of “ice days” (daily maximum air temperature
- The greatest number of heat situations also occurred in the warmest parts of Germany. During the 1961-1990 period, the average number of hot days in the lowlands of the Upper Rhine rift, the West German lowland bay, and the South-Eastern basin and hills increased from five to nine days per year. During the 1981-2010 period, events of this kind increased from an average of eight to nine and to as much as 13 days per year in the lowlands.
- Changes in precipitation have also been observed in Germany. The mean annual precipitation in Germany has increased by over 10 % since the late 19th century (1881). At 101 mm, target precipitation in 2015 exceeded the level for the 1961-1990 climate reference period by 52.3 %.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.