This page presents Finland's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.
The climate of Finland displays features of both maritime and continental climates, depending on the direction of air flow. Considering its northern location, the mean temperature in Finland is several degrees higher than in most other areas at these latitudes, e.g. Siberia and southern Greenland. The temperature is higher because of the Baltic Sea, due to the inland waters and, above all, as a result of the air flows from the Atlantic Ocean, which are warmed by the Gulf Stream. The mean annual temperature is approximately 5.5°C in south-western Finland and decreases towards the northeast. The 0°C mean limit is approximately as far north as the Arctic Circle. Temperature differences between regions are the greatest in January, when the difference between southern and northern Finland is, on average, approximately 10°C. In June and July it is closer to 5°C. The Finnish climate is characterised by irregular precipitation and typically there are rapid changes in the weather. The mean annual precipitation in southern and central Finland is usually between 600 and 750 mm, except near the coast, where it is slightly lower. In northern Finland, the annual precipitation is 450 to 650 mm. The seasonal variation in precipitation is similar throughout the country, with the driest months being February, March and April. From then on, precipitation gradually increases until July and August, or until September and October on the coast, after which it decreases towards the winter and springtime. The lowest annual precipitation ever recorded was less than 300 mm in northern Finland, while the country’s maximum recorded precipitation exceeded 1,100 mm. The highest daily precipitation ever recorded was almost 200 mm, but values above 50 mm are not very common. During an average year, more than half of the days have some precipitation, except near the coastal regions. During severe winters, the Baltic Sea may freeze over almost completely, but during mild winters it remains open for the most part, except for the Gulf of Bothnia and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland.